Since the mid-1990s when the original ACEs study was conducted, the medical and scientific fields have learned a lot about the impact of other childhood adversities that weren’t identified in the original study. These include other childhood risk factors for toxic stress such as discrimination, poverty, and racism.
We’ve also learned that economically disadvantaged groups, communities of color, LGBTQ communities, immigrants and refugees, and children who were involved in the criminal, legal or child welfare systems are disproportionately impacted by ACEs and toxic stress. We also know that these populations have other risk factors for toxic stress, increased incidence of ACE-associated health conditions, and barriers and/or decreased access to buffering resources due to structural or systemic factors.
This list describes some of these common and impactful childhood adversities: